I have recently migrated my server at home from a custom Linux build to Ubuntu Server (8.10 Intrepid). The main migration went very smoothly and I learned a few new tricks on the way too.
One function the server performs is as my telephone system for work and home. It runs Asterisk. I have a couple of IAX2 trunks from our VOIP provider for mine and my wife’s businesses and I also have a cheap x100p clone analogue card for PSTN backup purposes. On my old system software, I had compiled the device drivers (zaptel) and kernel modules for the card manually and used a, frankly fantastic, echo canceller called Oslec (the Open Source Line Echo Canceller). You can read the couple of posts I made about when I first tried it out here.
On my new server OS, I installed the Asterisk server via Ubuntu’s package management system
sudo apt-get install asterisk. After some digging around on the ‘net (and it wasn’t obvious) I discovered that the zaptel drivers (for the PSTN hardware) need to be installed slightly differently:
You might have to run
sudo m-a -t build zaptel Which retrieves the zaptel package and builds it for your running kernel.
m-a prepare in advance of this to retrieve your Linux kernel headers.
The m-a (Module Assistant) command will compile and create a
.deb package in the
/usr/src directory. On my system the package was called
It can then be installed using dpkg:
sudo dpkg -i zaptel-modules-2.6.27-11-server_1.4.11~dfsg-2+2.6.27-11.27_i386.deb.
This went fine and I had read on launchpad that as of an earlier version of the zaptel package the Oslec echo canceller was now the default. Unfortunately this didn’t quite work as I expected. The zaptel module was in fact using the standard MG2 EC which is not very good with my x100p card at all.
After a bit more digging around in the source code, there is a file in the zaptel package called zconfig.h which is where the chosen EC is defined. It is specified as MG2 in the package.
What I did to fix it was as follows. Unpack the
zaptel.tar.bz2package that was in
kernel/zconfig.hfile so the line
#define ECHO_CAN_MG2is commented out
and added in a line that reads
Re-assemble the zaptel package:
sudo tar jcvf zaptel.tar.bz2 modules(“modules” is the directory name where the zaptel package extracts to).
Delete the existing zaptel-blah-blah.deb file and the modules directory too. Re-run the
m-a -t build zaptelcommand.
Thanks to Tzafir Cohen on the asterisk mailing list for this. There is a far simpler method to use for the time being although this is a known bug and is now fixed in the development tree so I guess it will be unnecessary once the package has been updated. Do please check first if you are following this in the months to come. Anyway, instead of the commands above, these commands work for me and are far simpler:
sudo m-a -f get zaptel-source This simply gets the source package and saves it in
sudo ECHO_CAN_NAME=OSLEC m-a -t a-i zaptel And this builds and installs the modules and tells the build scripts to choose the Oslec EC by default. The
-t switch puts the command into text mode so you actually see what is going on. I find the process rather opaque and uninformative without this switch.
After rebuilding, the zaptel module now requires, and loads the Oslec EC by default. The command
modinfo zaptel is a good test. The output of it should be something like this:
description: Zapata Telephony Interface
author: Mark Spencer <firstname.lastname@example.org>
vermagic: 2.6.27-11-server SMP mod_unload modversions 686
Note the “depends” line.
You could also type
lsmod | grep 'zaptel' once you have reloaded your server:
zaptel 199844 5 wcfxo
oslec 16668 1 zaptel
crc_ccitt 10112 1 zaptel
This command shows the oslec ec module installed along with the the zaptel and wcfxo drivers.
One final point to note. If you just want to load a particular telephony hardware driver and not all of them, I think you need a file
/etc/default/zaptel like this with the relevant driver(s) uncommented:
# Un-comment as per your requirements; modules to load/unload
#Module Name Hardware
#MODULES="$MODULES tor2" # T400P - Quad Span T1 Card
#E400P - Quad Span E1 Card
#MODULES="$MODULES wct4xxp" # TE405P - Quad Span T1/E1 Card (5v version)
# TE410P - Quad Span T1/E1 Card (3.3v version)
#wct4xxp_ARGS="t1e1override=15" # Additional parameters for TE4xxP driver
#MODULES="$MODULES wct1xxp" # T100P - Single Span T1 Card
# E100P - Single Span E1 Card
#MODULES="$MODULES wcte11xp" # TE110P - Single Span T1/E1 Card
#MODULES="$MODULES wctdm24xxp" # TDM2400P - Modular FXS/FXO interface (1-24 ports)
MODULES="$MODULES wcfxo" # X100P - Single port FXO interface
# X101P - Single port FXO interface
#MODULES="$MODULES wctdm" # TDM400P - Modular FXS/FXO interface (1-4 ports)
I can’t recall the exact origins of this file and whether or not it is really necessary, but I had it on my old system and the Ubuntu provided zaptel init script checks for it’s presence; although it doesn’t look like it does much with its contents though…
Hopefully this will help others and also act as a bit of an aide memoir for me when I next build an Ubuntu server with Asterisk.
Here’s a neat thing I managed to sort out the other day.
If you have read any of the “Untangle, Asterisk and File Server; All-in-One” series of posts before, then you will know that I’ve got a neat little VIA CN700 server for our home that is running all sorts of good stuff.
One of the things I have wanted to do for a while was to create a shared directory on the server so any family member can put stuff in there (like music files etc) but not be able to delete anything so as to prevent accidentally removing thousands of MP3s or irreplaceable digital pictures for example. This facility is apparently called a “drop-box”.
Hmmmm. Now let me think… Linux file permissions are
rwx: Read Write eXecute. So, if you have write access, you can delete too. How can I fix this?
After some Googling and reading the Samba documentation it is actually pretty straightforward. Here’s how to make a drop-box on a Linux file server using Samba (CIFS) as the file sharing protocol and access mechanism.
- Create a directory somewhere on your server and give it a sensible name: I called it “shared” and put it under the
- Create a Linux group for all users who you want to access the drop-box: I called the group “shared”. Then add your users to that group.
- Using sudo or running as root, change the the directory settings as follows:
chmod 770 shared. This prevents access to the directory by anyone other than root, and the owner and group members.
chown nobody:shared shared. This changes the directory ownership to a user “nobody” and the group “shared”. It is important that you use a user who is NOT a member of the shared group. Any user will do, but it must be defined in
/etc/passwd. I chose “nobody” as it has very minimal permissions and is unlikely to pose any sort of security hazard. On my server, the user nobody is configured thus:
chmod g+s shared/. This sets the directory’s SGID bit so that any new files or directories created in our shared directory will have their group id set to that of the of the shared directory. This ensures all members of the shared group can read the contents.
chmod +t sharedThis sets the “sticky bit” of our shared directory. On Linux, setting the sticky bit, means items inside the directory can be renamed or deleted only by the item’s owner, the directory’s owner, or the superuser; without the sticky bit set, any user with write and execute permissions for the directory can rename or delete contained files, regardless of owner.
- Here’s a listing of the directory showing how it should look now:
drwxrws--T 3 nobody shared 62 2008-04-15 21:48 shared
Now we can set-up our share in Samba as follows:
comment = Our Shared Data/Media
path = /home/shared/
read only = no
valid users = @shared
browseable = yes
inherit owner = yes
valid users @shared line tells samba that only members of the “shared” group can access this share. And the line
inherit owner = yes is what makes it all work. This tells samba to set the owner of any files created to the owner of the directory we are in. In this case the owner is “nobody”. As the sticky bit is set on this directory, only the user “nobody” or the superuser can remove files as their ownership is instantly changed by Samba when first created from the actual user to the user “nobody”.
After dropping a file into the shared directory over a samba connection the listing looks like this:
-rwxr--r-- 1 nobody shared 1272366 2008-04-17 14:17 14_-_Jubilee.mp3.
See how the file is owned by “nobody:shared” and only has group and other read set.
It might sound like a bit of a palaver, but it doesn’t take very long to set up. This is a very useful way of creating drop-boxes for many kinds of applications.
I hope someone finds this useful, and please leave a comment if you do!
A big thanks to Simbul who noted the obvious flaw in my suggestion. Although you could safely drop files into this folder, you couldn’t create directories which was a bit of a PITA to be honest. However Simbul made a simple addition to the
[shared] section that fixes this issue (See the comments at the bottom of this post for details):
comment = Our Shared Data/Media
path = /home/shared/
read only = no
valid users = @shared
browseable = yes
inherit owner = yes
Add the following two lines:
directory mode = 3770
force directory mode = 3770
And that’s it. Thanks Simbul. It works a treat.
I’ve been meaning to write about this for a while now. But what with the flu, Microshaft’s ongoing corruption of the ISO and some other stuff cropping up, I just kept finding reasons to put it off. Finally however, after jotting some notes and so forth for a few days I’ve managed to get my act together.
A Pet [Open Source] Project I want to give some airtime to, and get some assistance for, is Linux From Scratch.
Going back into the dark ages, I had been “playing” with one Linux distribution or other from the cover of PC magazines for sometime (I think it was a very early Mandrake or Suse product that first grabbed me), and found the whole system quite fascinating. The fact it was all free, and you could “LOOK” into it and see how it all worked together was a real eye opener. I was used to PCs and other computer platforms so it wasn’t all new… I grew up with VT100 terminals, DEC VAX VMS and then DOS so command line interpreters and such were nothing new in themselves but to get a complete OS, that did stuff, was free, and actually encouraged you to examine it, I remember it making me sit up and take notice even then.
One of the very first Open Source communities I came into active contact with was the Linux From Scratch (LFS for short) community. I cannot remember how I stumbled across the project or quite how long ago either, but it was quite a few years certainly. They have a feature which encourages newcomers to register their first LFS build when it is up and running. Checking on their website today, they have 19570 users registered so far. My LFS ID is 216 and the version of “the book” I recorded as having followed was 2.4.x when I registered. Although I certainly built (tried to build) a few before getting brave enough to register Anyway, I’m guessing this would have been around 1999/2000 some time.
LFS is still a project I follow closely and have a very warm opinion of. It has taught me a great deal over the years.
What is it then?
The project – if you can’t guess from the name – is all about building a functional Linux based operating system from scratch. That is, from nothing. You start with a spare partition on your hard disk and, by following the book, you learn what makes up a GNU/Linux operating system, how that operating system works and why bits of it behave the way they do. It is an educational project and it is a brilliant educational project. You gain knowledge of not just Linux itself but, Bash, compiling, device management and much, much more too. And what you also learn is what makes it all tick together… It is quite hard to explain but it’s a bit like the whole being worth more than just a simple sum of the individual parts.
LFS was started by a chap called Gerard Beekmans. The LFS project’s homepage explains the project thus:
What is Linux From Scratch?
Linux From Scratch (LFS) is a project that provides you with step-by-step instructions for building your own customized Linux system entirely from source.
Why would I want an LFS system?
Many wonder why they should go through the hassle of building a Linux system from scratch when they could just download an existing Linux distribution. However, there are several benefits of building LFS. Consider the following:
LFS teaches people how a Linux system works internally
Building LFS teaches you about all that makes Linux tick, how things work together and depend on each other. And most importantly, how to customize it to your own tastes and needs.
Building LFS produces a very compact Linux system
When you install a regular distribution, you often end up installing a lot of programs that you would probably never use. They’re just sitting there taking up (precious) disk space. It’s not hard to get an LFS system installed under 100 MB. Does that still sound like a lot? A few of us have been working on creating a very small embedded LFS system. We installed a system that was just enough to run the Apache web server; total disk space usage was approximately 8 MB. With further stripping, that can be brought down to 5 MB or less. Try that with a regular distribution.
LFS is extremely flexible
Building LFS could be compared to a finished house. LFS will give you the skeleton of a house, but it’s up to you to install plumbing, electrical outlets, kitchen, bath, wallpaper, etc. You have the ability to turn it into whatever type of system you need it to be, customized completely for you.
LFS offers you added security
You will compile the entire system from source, thus allowing you to audit everything, if you wish to do so, and apply all the security patches you want or need to apply. You don’t have to wait for someone else to provide a new binary package that (hopefully) fixes a security hole. Often, you never truly know whether a security hole is fixed or not unless you do it yourself.
Why LFS is a great platform
[When I discuss LFS I also imply the use of BLFS (Beyond Linux From Scratch) which is a fantastic resource for how to build and install the stuff that goes to make up a "useful" and "complete" Operating System.]
As some of the readers here will know, the little server I’ve built for home use is running LFS. It also runs, Apache, Tomcat, MySQL, PHP, Postgresql, is a Mail server, a Samba (Windows Networking) server, is our telephone exchange (running Asterisk) and a few other things too.
One of the main reasons for choosing LFS as the platform for this server is this: as it is built entirely from scratch there is no bloat, or unnecessary applications, the system is about as lean as you can get. The hardware I chose (very deliberately) is not the most powerful in the world; a mere 7Watts power consumption. But the applications running on the server currently seem very happy and there are plenty of system resources spare. This would be very hard to achieve using a mainstream distribution as they have to cater for as generic a host platform as possible and include a huge amount of features and supporting applications that are largely superfluous for a custom-built and tailored system.
Why LFS is not a great platform
LFS is not perfect however. The hurdle that causes most LFS users eventually to fall down and revert to a mainstream distribution is that of long-term maintenance of the LFS system. There is, by default, no concept of a package management system. When you install an application, you download the source code, and build the executable binaries and libraries and install them on your system. If there is a “dependency” issue like a missing library or something, this must be installed first before you can continue. In most respects this isn’t such a bad thing, but if you want to try some new app out it can involve building a great deal of software that you may realise, afterwards you don’t really want. Removing the unwanted can be a PITA.
My Desktop OS is Ubuntu. It works, and is very easy to upgrade and manage.
What happens next then?
In a few recent weeks, there has been a great flood of discussion and debate on the LFS mailing lists. The original thread for this debate, started by a long term LFS editor called Jeremy Huntwork, has sown the seed for a process to review what LFS is all about and how it could be taken forward whilst still maintaining the core principle of being an Educational Project first and foremost.
One area where I feel the project’s new direction and strategy could really benefit is from some “new blood” with few pre-conceived ideas or historical baggage.
If you use Linux, don’t really know what is going under the hood but want to, then please visit the LFS website, download or read on-line the current book and start working your way through it. Join the mailing lists (either directly or go through gmane and your favourite newsreader), and please contribute your views and experiences.
We really want to give LFS a new lease of life and that, IMHO, needs some fresh ideas and thinking too.
I love this article on zdnet from David Greenfield. It’s a round-up of what’s happening in the up and coming area of Open Source Hardware. According to David,
A burgeoning trend in open source hardware is putting up some devices on the Web — from machines that make anything (including themselves) to cars — with the specs to make them yourself (See our list below). While still in its infancy, the trend could redefine hardware cost models much as its done for software.
And there are some neat really ideas like this one which I have been following myself for a while:
Now that you’ve got Asterisk, what hardware platform will you run the software on? Usually folk settle on a Intel or AMD based-server of one kind or another. You can build your own PBX hardware with the Astfin Project or buy one for just $450 from the Free Telephony Project store.
This Asterisk appliance project has the chap who wrote the brilliant Open Source Echo Canceller I mentioned before in it.
But how about your own, Open Source Car…
Open Source isn’t just for your office. The OScar aims to be the first open source automobile. The goal is to create a utilitarian car that aims to move people from place-to-place sans a lot of the high-tech gadgetry that runs in today cards. Initial concepts call for a four-door, four meter length vehicle weighing about 1000 Kilo capable of reaching 145 KM/hour.
Cool – just the thing to keep a man happy and content in his shed for months.
Here’s a quick tip…
I was trying to get a Firefox session running over an SSH connection between my desktop PC (Ubuntu 7.10) and the little server I’m building. The strange thing was, every time I typed
firefox & at the command line prompt, it started Firefox all right; but it started a local (Ubuntu) instance of it with my local profile settings! One of the reasons I wanted to run a remote browser was so I could download files directly to that machine and so I could access some html docs on that box; as it is now headless.
A bit of Googling led me here, where the author used this command
( export MOZ_NO_REMOTE=1; firefox -profilemanager ) &. After a bit of experimentation, and more Googling, for my purposes it can be simplified to this:
firefox -no-remote &
This assumes Firefox version 2 and that your SSH connection was made using
ssh -X uname@host
Hope this helps someone else. It got me foxed for ages initially…
If you’ve been following the story so far you’ll now where I am. If you haven’t, please go back to Part 1 and read from there. Alternatively if you click on the Untangle tag in the tag cloud then you should get all of the posts so far.
I’ve not yet got any further with the Untangle portion, but pretty much everything else is now in place and working
Last night I built and installed the few remaining applications that are necessary to support my objectives:
- MySQL (I need this for Joomla! and vtiger)
- Postgresql (I need this for untangle)
- PHP (and some associated libraries for added functionality, i.e. HTML-Tidy, mm, libmcrypt, mhash…)
I have also been thinking about what it is actually I am trying to achieve. I find a picture really helps so here’s a block diagram of the applications I want and how they should interface to the outside world…
This was a good exercise that helped me to understand the flow of traffic and what needs to be prevented from passing through the server. The dotted line from Apache to the Internet is because I’m not sure yet whether I’ll actually provide any sort of public web presence from this box or not. I doubt it somehow but you never know…
If anyone has any comments or suggestions for improvements I’d be happy to hear them. I made the original diagram in OOo draw. Here’s the original file if you want to use it or alter it. As with all other stuff on here, its CC licensed.